The Ecologist


Roma people burning cables to extract copper. Photo: Steven Wassenaar

More articles about
Related Articles

Revealed: scandal of Roma people forced to scavenge toxic e-waste

Carolyn Lebel

12th October, 2010

In the wake of President Sarkozy's crackdown on the Roma people, an Ecologist investigation uncovers how poverty and discrimination are forcing persecuted communities to scratch a living recycling France's growing mountain of e-waste - potentially threatening health and raising questions over the effectiveness of waste policies

‘It’s a city within a city,’ says a man who goes by the name of JP. ‘They’ll find a pair of old shoes on the street and resell them here for five euros. The kids will offer to fetch you water, but it'll cost you fifty cents. Everyone’s in business!’

In a vast secluded parking lot on the outskirts of Paris, about 150 Roma people from countries such as Romania and Bulgaria have set up camp, erecting shacks of discarded planks and plastic sheets. It’s mid-day and the women are outdoors cooking meats and stews on open stoves carved out of metal drums, or from charred shopping carts. The radio of a parked van plays the soulful rhythm of gypsy music.

A few of the older kids have made a game of riding municipal waste bins down a paved road leading into the encampment. The bins are empty. Instead the trash – empty water bottles, rotten mattresses, perished white goods, rubber tires and vast nests of tangled cables – are stockpiled in heaps throughout the site, amassing in ditches and swallowing up the surrounding vegetation. This abundance of waste is in fact the very engine of what JP calls a city; the source of a grubby, invisible, yet bustling micro-economy.

Roma men and women go gleaning the streets of greater Paris in search of discarded electrical and electronic goods (e-waste), shed by city’s respectable citizens and businesses. Hauling dirty trolleys, on rickety bicycles, or – for the big timers – in dilapidated cargo vans, they round up old refrigerators, broken microwaves, obsolete television sets and other unwanted items, and bring them here. In a crude feat of reverse engineering, the e-waste is broken back down to its elements: aluminum, copper, iron, lead. It’s the metals they’re after.

With a vast network of scrap dealers in France, there is always a ready market for metals, which are becoming easier to recycle than to mine. The prices may fluctuate with global market forces that are far removed from the realities of slum living. But for the Roma communities who live in chronic poverty – often forced to survive on the refuse of societies that reject them – the business is lucrative. These days, a kilo of stainless steel goes for about 0.97 euro, while copper, a prized metal, varies between 1.20 euro and 4.30 euros, depending on the quality.

Scavenging waste

For a young man like Novak who lives in a caravan with his wife and two-year old son in one of the more established encampments near Paris, scavenging for scrap metals (la ferraille) has become a way of life.

Twice a day, he sets out with a friend in a white cargo van, brought in from England. With the instinct of a hunter-gatherer and the rigor of an entrepreneur, he scours the streets of Parisian suburbs – Les Lilas, Saint Ouen, Vincennes, Pantin – on a schedule that’s tightly aligned with the programmed routine of specialized municipal waste removal services, clocking some 70km a day.

‘Saturdays and Sundays – they’re good for ferraille. People stay home, clean the house,’ he explains. On a good day, Novak and his friend can earn 50 to 60 euros, sometimes more. “When I find ferraille, I put 10 euros to 15 euros [of petrol in the van]. When I don’t find, I put in five euros,’ he says of his operating expenses.

The Sunday I tag along to hunt for e-waste is one of those good days. Just as we’re leaving the encampment, Novak’s brother arrives in a dark blue sedan packed with four other people. He’s just driven in from Romania. And on the very last leg of his trip, dumped next to the road leading into the encampment, he’s found a load of abandoned household appliances.

‘They know we do ferraille,’ Novak says by way of explanation as we approach the cargo. Three refrigerators, two dishwashers, a Miel washing machine and a Whirlpool dryer have presumably been dumped here by well-meaning, if lazy, deliverymen from a major retail chain. ‘There is luck today. I am happy my brother is back. I am happy to have found la ferraille,’ says Novak.

The booty represents more than just a stroke of luck. It is an encounter with a relatively recent source of competition for people like Novak, who for years, made it their business to peck away at over 1.5 million tonnes of e-waste generated by French households and companies every year – a figure that is growing.

With the implementation of an EU directive in France three years ago  (the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive or WEEE) however, manufacturers are now held responsible for collecting, recycling and safely disposing of their branded e-waste. So when your new refrigerator is delivered, the deliveryman is also charged with picking up your old machine.

Since 2006, some 22,000 e-waste drop-off points have also been put in place across the country, by retailers and municipalities. And for urbanites without cars, cities such as Paris offer a free collection service for large household appliances, furniture and other bulky items, either by appointment or on designated days.

Parallel networks

Despite these initiatives, recovery rates through official WEEE channels remain low. In 2009, the average French consumer generated some 22kg of e-waste a year, the equivalent in weight of a seven-year-old boy, according to the French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management (ADEME). Yet a mere 5.7kg (a 3 month old infant) was actually recovered (per person) through official channels. Meanwhile, businesses are left to their own devices to dispose of their e-waste; and they are possibly the main source of illegal exports to developing countries, according to Hélène Bourges of the CNIID, an independent environmental protection organization.

It’s unclear exactly where it all winds up – forgotten in cluttered basements and closets, incinerated alongside organic waste, illegally exported to countries such as China, India or Ghana, or recycled by the likes of Novak through the scrap metal dealers. According to René-Louis Perrier, President of Ecologic – one of four accredited e-waste recycling organisations in France – about half of France’s e-waste is lost to ‘parallel networks’.

This means that significant quantities of the country’s e-waste is winding up in the hands of the poor, being recycled in conditions that are hazardous to the health of these informal eco-workers and the environment. Whether it is in the slums of Paris, or at industrial-scale workshops in Guiyu, China, cables are often burned in open fires to extract precious copper. And it’s not uncommon for the Roma to take an old car battery and melt it down for the lead.

‘They would work directly above these clouds of black smoke,’ states Dr. Bernard Moriau, talking about the Roma he examined living in the woods of the Val d’Oise region near Paris, while on mission with the humanitarian organisation, Doctors of the World. ‘I’m always very worried for them. But warning them of the danger is not going to change their ways. Today, it’s their only means of survival.’

According to a local news source, in 2008 the grounds of an evicted Roma encampment near Lyon was found to be contaminated with heavy metals, known to cause cancers. Meanwhile, an investigation carried out by Doctors of the World and other local NGOs at three different sites in the south of the country (Bordeaux, Annecy and Toulouse) ten years ago revealed abnormal levels of blood lead in half of the children, while one in four suffered from lead poisoning. But these findings have yet to interest public health authorities, says Dr. Jean-Claude Guiraud, who estimates that thousands of Roma children are at risk of lead poisoning.

Toxic victims

Similar findings were described elsewhere, including at a site near Lyon where 19 children were recently reported to have elevated blood lead levels, and two were poisoned with lead. ‘Children are especially vulnerable to lead poisoning,’ says Dr. Guiraud, who has been working with the Roma since 1965. ‘It can cause permanent damage to all the organs including the brain.’  

The encampments themselves pose an immediate danger to children, who find themselves playing next to toxic bonfires and rat-infested Aladdin’s caves of gutted machinery and sharp metal scraps.

As the head an accredited recycling organisation that pays special attention to providing job opportunities for the physically disabled and other marginalized people, Réné-Louis Perrier is particularly bothered by the practices of his informal competitors.

Refrigerators, which are prized by recyclers for a copper-rich component – the compressor – pose a special environmental threat during recycling. They contain cooling agents that can damage the ozone layer, and potent greenhouse gasses within the insulation foams. ‘When a scrap metal dealer takes a refrigerator and puts it through a car crusher to extract the metals, about four tonnes of carbon are released into the atmosphere,’ says Perrier.

It’s a source of competition he qualifies as unfair. ‘They are not concerned with their recovery rates, nor with de-polluting their products. These costs have been cut from their operations,’ Perrier says.

But scrap metal dealers provide proper invoices and a means of survival for an industrious tribe of Roma, who, thanks to discriminatory employment regulations in France, find it impossible to get legitimate work.

‘Sometimes they’ll go behind supermarkets and look through the bins. They’ll find food that’s well wrapped – yogurts, hams – that still have two days left before expiry,’ says Liliana Hrispathe, a Roma woman who came to France six years ago and now works with an NGO that places Roma children in schools. ‘In Romania, you don’t find anything in the garbage. You don’t find clothes for your children, food to eat, wood to heat during the winter, and scrap metals to make a bit of money. Romania, it’s empty.’

Carolyn Lebel is a freelance journalist based in Paris

Add to StumbleUpon
The dangers of e-waste
In February 2009 the Environment Agency began its first prosecution against an individual for an e-waste crime, and claims to have prevented 33 shipments in the previous six months.
Low-cost e-waste recycling in China releasing catalogue of pollutants
The world's growing waste mountain of mobile phones, computers and other electronic goods is being illegally recycled in unregulated and primitive conditions in China and causing significant toxic pollution
UN warns India and China over growing problem of e-waste
African and Asian countries need proper electronic waste recycling systems to prevent the surge in consumer demand creating toxic e-waste mountains
Annie Leonard: 'computers are great, but do they have to have neurotoxins in them?'
The waste warrior behind the You Tube hit and now book 'The Story of Stuff', on banning children's advertising, making manufacturers responsible for waste and shifting our values
Dark Clouds gathering
Do you know where your email is stored and what it costs the environment to store it there?


Previous Articles...

Users Comments

fake oakley sunglasses
Posted By DonaldQuer 1 October 2, 2015 05:51:58 AM

He doesn't are aware that his mother, , has refused to depart his side every day and night or that his father, , is telling anybody that will listen that "Today is just [url=]discount oakleys[/url] comparable to the day he came to be [url=]discount oakley sunglasses[/url] because happiest day's my life." [url=]cheap oakleys[/url] And many of all, Drew will have to be told this important truth: Inside a realm of wishing, miracles sometimes found true.Drew's chances are not good, since the Bay Area learned soon. [url=]replica oakleys[/url] Struggling with an intense cardiac condition, cardiomyopathy, his heart failed the other day Wednesday, struggling to pump blood through his tiny body. He was placed on [url=]replica oakleys sunglasses[/url] a computer device called an ECMO, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, machine, that will keep his heart beating and the lungs drawing breath, but it was just a short term solution. [url=]replica oakleys sunglasses[/url] [url=]replica oakleys sunglasses[/url] [url=]discount oakley sunglasses[/url]

discount oakley sunglasses
Posted By DonaldQuer 1 October 13, 2015 12:50:35 PM

Cincinnati Bengals fullback Orson Charles was arrested in Madison County, Ky., late Monday and charged with wanton endangerment first degree, in accordance with the jail.Wanton endangerment [url=]fake oakleys[/url] from the first degree in Kentucky [url=]replica oakleys[/url] is defined as when, under circumstances manifesting extreme indifference [url=]fake oakley sunglasses[/url] on the worth of human life, someone partcipates in conduct which [url=]replica oakleys[/url] creates a substantial danger of death or serious [url=]discount oakley sunglasses[/url] injuries to a new. It is just a class D felony. ET Monday.Charles, 23, will likely be entering his third year with the Bengals. [url=]cheap oakleys[/url] [url=]cheap oakley sunglasses[/url] [url=]replica oakleys[/url]

replica oakleys sunglasses
Posted By DonaldQuer 1 October 23, 2015 08:31:20 AM

129, 123 and 109) were density stratified [url=]replica oakleys[/url] which has a subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM) just [url=]fake oakleys[/url] above a pycnocline ([url=]discount oakley sunglasses[/url] through the maximum rate of [url=]cheap oakley sunglasses[/url] difference in sigma theta) at 25 30m (Figure 3). Secondary chlorophyll fluorescence peaks were also detected at ca. 70 100m. Whichever version you select [url=]fake oakley sunglasses[/url] you'll get all theperformance breakthroughs with this unique eyewear invention. KeyFeatures Plutonite lens filters 100% UVA UVB UVCOakleyHydrophobic lens coating prevents buildup of rain sweat oils andother contaminates Easily interchangeable lenses designed withOakley's High Definition Optics HDO Alternative nose pads made ofUnobatainium increase grip with perspiration Includesstoragetransport case G30 Lens FeaturesRate of Transmission30%Light Index 2 Flat to Medium Light port performance lens forflat to medium light. Rose base having a subtle Iridium coating toimprove contrast and depth perception in blues and greens. [url=]discount oakleys[/url] [url=]cheap oakleys[/url] [url=]discount oakleys[/url]

replica ray ban sunglasses
Posted By DonaldQuer 1 November 1, 2015 06:29:44 AM

The ease in which Southampton bustled United from their rhythm ought to concern Ferguson. His players hit [url=]fake oakleys[/url] way too many inaccurate long balls in the first half, gave away possession many times and barely fashioned a chance following your interval until Forlan's shot. Only once Mikael Silvestre directed a no cost header wide [url=]replica oakleys sunglasses[/url] coming from a corner did they otherwise threaten and the first half was little better.. Osteen, Robert W. Ozburn, Chandeya M. Peace, Paul S. [url=]discount oakley sunglasses[/url] For most teens, prescription sunglasses are better to clip ons since they're more subtle. Sporting sunglasses can be a particularly sturdy [url=]cheap oakley sunglasses[/url] option for busy teens. Mirrored sunglasses [url=]discount oakley sunglasses[/url] are certainly not a good choice, because they scratch easily. [url=]fake oakley sunglasses[/url] [url=]fake oakleys[/url] [url=]cheap oakley sunglasses[/url]

viagra best price online
Posted By PhilOxycle 1 November 4, 2015 06:21:35 AM

It is often used to clarify findings from earlier xrays or CT scans.It is found in the hollow part of most bones.PaO .He persevered when other surgeons gave up amid post surgical deaths and issues on defining braindead donors. [url=]inderal buy india[/url] Modern Medicine edicine took giant strides through the th century.She also told her physician that she had a sensation of a curtain being pulled over part of the visual eld in that eye.Episcleritis a.Vardenafil improves sexual function and treatment satisfaction in couples affected by erectile dysfunction ED a randomized doubleblind placebocontrolled trial in PDE inhibitornaive men with ED and their partners.Cheryl Brown is a year old female who presents to the emergency department with a day history of Right Iliac Fossa RIF pain and vomiting.I shall be given chloroform The abscess which was six inches in diameter was very quickly cut Mr. [url=]can you buy furosemide over the counter[/url] b.Figure illustrates the different sizes and shapes of muscle nerve fat and epithelial cells.The nucleus holds the DNA which dictates how the cell grows.Summary The questions serve as a selfassessment tool allowing students to think through clinical scenarios without answer choices influencing their thought process.Causes Myotonia congenita is caused by a genetic change mutation.Grade I tumors are very well differentiated so that they closely resemble cells from the normal parent tissue of their origin.Overview a. [url=]healtyman viagra[/url] b Zhao and Christ Staerman et al.hour fast a.Jahoda A.Prevalence increases with age. [url=]buy isotretinoin online[/url] Insulin deficiencyInsulin stimulates the Na K ATPase and causes K to shift into cells.Sometimes calcifications of ductus arteriosusPhysiology and Biophysics [url=]viagra generique achat[/url] Again with no Internet we had to spend several nights at the Library of Medicine trying to educate ourselves with what we were dealing with.

2015 Classic New Balance 574 & New Balance 577 Pas Cher
Posted By JeffreyPn 1 November 6, 2015 11:12:18 AM

But Verzbicas is more than merely a wonderful runner. Joined with his swimming and cycling talents, he have also been beating competitors in triathlon events. In his freshman year in secondary school [url=]New Balance Baskets[/url] during 2009, he won the Pan American Triathlon Confederation Junior Championships. While super PACs are made to be independent, many groups have popped up on the presidential and congressional level to compliment individual candidates. [url=]Pas Cher New Balance[/url] Such groups [url=]New Balance 410[/url] accounted for approximately 1 / 2 of fundraising among groups filing their monthly reports within the month of June the ones filing second quarter reports since the second ninety days of 2012. (Super PACs can pick to launch on a monthly or quarterly basis.). [url=]Chaussures New Balance[/url] [url=]New Balance 530 Femme[/url] [url=]New Balance 990 V3[/url]

viagra 50mg reviews
Posted By PhilOxycle 1 November 15, 2015 08:59:13 PM

Diseases of the Heart Muscleprostate gland [url=]buy tamoxifen withought prescription[/url] ARDScarcinogenesisDRUG THERAPY The following are categories of drugs used to treat psychiatric disorders.The specific heats of some substances are shown in TablePeripheral Vascular Disease PVD chronic arterial Insufficiency a.The study results support current guidelines for maternal diets.NitricOxide Synthases in the Penis. [url=]furosemide[/url] aorta Largest artery in the body.Pathophysiology Over the past years the microbial resistance has increased in context to many diseases Morales WJ AugThis is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new or infrequently employed drug.www. [url=]cialis y foro[/url] general characteristicsIn Grainger RC Allison D Adam Dixon AK eds.Gynecomastia d.Approximately of COPD cases were still using cigarettes during the survey period compared withEye infection inflammation or injury Floaters tiny particles drifting inside the eye which may be confused with retinal detachment. [url=]lasix pay online american express[/url] In East Asia around Chinese physician Zan Yin compiled the chapter Jing Xiao Chan Bao Treasured Knowledge of Obstetrics or Tested Prescriptions in ObstetricsPhiladelphia Pa Mosby Elsevier chapIn smaller amounts usually taken orally as an infusion or soup these serve as remedies for a huge array of ailments ranging from headaches and toothache to coughs and chest infections sexually transmitted diseases and constipation.Laparo and celio meanHis PMH is significant for HTN for which he takes metoprolol.In a pilot study it was observed that trazodone may be beneficial in the management of selective serotoninreuptake inhibitorinduced sexual dysfunction Stryjer et al.A KUB study demonstrates the size and location of the kidneys in relation to other organs in the abdominopelvic region. [url=]viagra online prices[/url] semicircular canals Passages in the inner ear associated with maintaining equilibrium.Clinical featuresThey concluded that these hypoxaemiainduced changes were reversible as testosterone and DHEA concentrations increased significantly in men recovering from a severe exacerbation of COPD as in the present studySaw palmetto is hypothesized to act similar to alphareductase inhibitors.

discount oakleys,fake oakleys
Posted By DonaldQuer 1 November 16, 2015 07:09:59 AM

Capt. Bob Bogan {of the|from the|with the|in the} Gambler {out of|from|away from|beyond} Point Pleasant Beach reported some landings {of five|of 5} {and six|and 6} pound fluke, but said the fishing {is still|continues to be|remains|remains to be} {is little|is nothing|is no} slow. On his night striper trips {they've been|they have been|they are|to remain} landing some lunker size bass over 30 pounds. Butler (1850 1926), an Irish immigrant,[19] placed a $100 bet per side (roughly {equivalent to|equal to|comparable to|similar to} modern US$2,000) with Cincinnati hotel owner Jack Frost, that Butler, age 31, could beat {any local|any nearby|your local|your regional} fancy shooter. The hotelier arranged a shooting {match with|complement} Oakley, age 21, {to be|to become|being|to get} {held in|locked in|located in|kept in} {ten days|10 days} {in a small|in a tiny|in a} town near Greenville, Ohio. Butler later {said it|said hello|stated it|claimed it} was "18 miles {from the|in the|from your|through the} nearest [train] station"[20] ([url=]{fake oakley sunglasses|discount oakley sunglasses|fake oakleys|discount oakleys}[/url] [url=]{cheap oakley sunglasses|discount oakley sunglasses|cheap oakleys|discount oakleys}[/url] {of the|from the|with the|in the} Gambler {out of|from|away from|beyond} Point Pleasant Beach reported some landings {of five|of 5} {and six|and 6} pound fluke, but said the fishing {is still|continues to be|remains|remains to be} [url=]{fake oakley sunglasses|discount oakley sunglasses|fake oakleys|discount oakleys}[/url] {is little|is nothing|is no} slow. On his night striper trips {they've been|they have been|they are|to remain} landing some lunker size bass over 30 pounds. Butler (1850 1926), an Irish immigrant,[19] placed a $100 bet per side (roughly {equivalent to|equal to|comparable to|similar to} modern US$2,000) with Cincinnati hotel owner Jack Frost, that Butler, age 31, could beat {any local|any nearby|your local|your regional} fancy shooter. The hotelier arranged a shooting {match with|complement} Oakley, age 21, {to be|to become|being|to get} {held in|locked in|located in|kept in} {ten days|10 days} {in a small|in a tiny|in a} town near Greenville, Ohio. Butler later {said it|said hello|stated it|claimed it} was "18 miles {from the|in the|from your|through the} nearest [train] station"[20] ({about the|concerning the|in regards to the|regard[url=]{cheap oakley sunglasses|replica oakleys sunglasses|cheap oakleys|replica oakleys}[/url] {is still|continues to be|remains|remains to be} {is little|is nothing|is no} slow. On his night striper trips {they've been|they have been|they are|to remain} landing some lunker size bass over 30 pounds. Butler (1850 1926), an Irish immigrant,[19] placed a $100 bet per side (roughly {equivalent to|equal to|comparable to|similar to} modern US$2,000) with Cincinnati hotel owner Jack Frost, that Butler, age 31, could beat {any local|any nearby|your local|your regional} fancy shooter. The hotelier arranged a shooting {match with|complement} Oakley, age 21, {to be|to become|being|to get} {held in|locked in|located in|kept in} {ten days|10 days} {in a small|in a tiny|in a} town near Greenville, Ohio. Butler later {said it|said hello|stated it|claimed it} was "18 miles [url=]{replica oakleys sunglasses|discount oakley sunglasses|replica oakleys|discount oakleys}[/url] {from the|in the|from your|through the} nearest [train] station"[20] ({about the|concerning the|in regards to the|regarding the} distance from Greenville to North Star). [url=]fake oakley sunglasses[/url] [url=]cheap oakley sunglasses[/url] [url=]discount oakleys[/url]

cheap oakley sunglasses
Posted By DonaldQuer 1 November 25, 2015 07:07:03 PM

Call 02087140126,London electricians 24/7 has more than 16 years expertise in the electrical trade, and supplies electrical work to a wide array of customers throughout london area. London electricians 247 is located in south london. Helping [url=]discount oakleys[/url] people to have a electricians at the earliest opportunity, london electricians 247 provides the average man or woman with professional electricians. 1473 items. Find huge savings on Nose pieces for oakley sunglasses. They. [url=]discount oakley sunglasses[/url] This can be achieved [url=]fake oakleys[/url] by making both the [url=]fake oakleys[/url] hardware and software element of voice recognition better. Bose worked an answer into its Wireless headset by using noise rejecting microphone technologies. Google may be able to [url=]fake oakleys[/url] change it for voice recognition in loud places, that might allow Google to rely more heavily on voice commands as an easy way of navigating a regular graphical user interface.. [url=]discount oakley sunglasses[/url] [url=]replica oakleys[/url] [url=]fake oakleys[/url]

Procure reduced generic no recipe
Posted By Hatthewhilm 1 December 6, 2015 10:45:11 PM

can i have a few drinks will taking cialis [url=]generic cialis[/url] no prescription cialis generic cialis - testogel cialis acquisto cialis generico italia

discount oakleys
Posted By DonaldQuer 1 December 10, 2015 07:06:41 AM

The athletic products are already usually shoes, shirts and equipments from primary brands as an example Nike, Adidas, New Balance, Puma, Oakley plus much more and in addition their signature product Eastbay Clothings. Eastbay has [url=]replica oakleys[/url] large number of products from new arrivals to sale products. You will see that there are many different categories [url=]fake oakleys[/url] for the different brands and manufacturers. Joe Moscho, Milaca/Faith Christian, 10 7; Eric Bourgeois, Monticello, pinned Ian Hedstrom, St. Paul Central, 3:59; Nate Thomas, Kasson Mantorville, dec. Dru Strand, Adrian, 2 1; Hunter Retzlaff, St. While those branded spectacles are mainly enjoyed by the rich group, a little proportion of men and women with low or medium income are often [url=]fake oakleys[/url] potential customers. In the end, [url=]replica oakleys[/url] this is actually the not a key point. The main factor [url=]discount oakley sunglasses[/url] is those designer eyeglasses have become increasingly popular one of many public. [url=]fake oakleys[/url] [url=]discount oakleys[/url] [url=]cheap oakley sunglasses[/url]

Music Downloads Tracks Songs mp3 albums
Posted By KasparKi 1 January 7, 2016 11:52:38 PM

Hello, favorite songs multi trax 1000000+, quality mp3 links Music MP3 Private FTP

Rise of the Tomb Raider PC Complet Jeu Cracked DENUVO
Posted By Albertened 1 January 29, 2016 12:55:06 PM

[url=]Rise of the Tomb Raider Completo Game Crack DENUVO [/url] - LINK

Comment Pirater Any Facebook En Ligne Gratuit Watch Without Software NEW
Posted By Albertened 1 February 1, 2016 05:00:54 PM

[url=]Hack Any FB Online Gratuit Watch Without Software HOT [/url] Direct Link - Online

Watch Movie
Posted By Albertened 1 February 29, 2016 11:11:08 AM

[url=] Watch Movie Zootopia [/url] [url=] Watch Movie Zootopia [/url] [url=] Watch Movie Zoolander [/url] [url=] Watch Movie Race [/url] [url=] Watch Movie Race [/url] [url=] Watch Movie How to be Single [/url] [url=] Watch Movie How to be Single [/url] [url=] Watch Movie The Witch [/url] [url=] Watch Movie Kung Fu Panda 3 [/url] [url=] Watch Movie Gods of Egypt [/url] [url=] Watch Movie Gods of Egypt [/url] [url=] Watch Movie Deadpool [/url] [url=] Watch Movie Deadpool [/url]

Maximum Extreme Sex Porn Video 2015 z
Posted By AdalinVat 1 March 13, 2016 04:00:54 PM

[CENTER]Maximum Extreme Sex Porn Video 2015r [url=]EXTREME PORN VIP CLUB[/url] [url=]Zoo Extreme Sex Porn Best Video Uncensored[/url] [url=]Bestiality Zoo Sex Porn Video Exclusive Movie[/url] [url=]Alice New Star Teens Extreme Hot Sex with a Horses & Dogs[/url] [url=]Horse Sex Whores Extreme Hard Sex with a Horses[/url] [url=]Stallion Horse Cum Buckets of horse cum fun[/url] [url=]Horses and Teengirls Teen girl having sex with horse farmsex[/url] [url=]Male Zoo Gay farmsex with a horses and dogs[/url] [url=]Dog Sex Club Hot Teens Sex with a Dogs [/url] [url=]Beasty Asia Japan Zoo Sex Collection[/url] [url=]Genki Japan Studio Extreme Sex with Exotic Animals[/url] [url=]Maximum Extreme Sex Porn Best Video Uncensored[/url] [url=]Necrophilia Extreme Death Sex Uncesored[/url] [url=]Brutal Forced Rape Teens Extreme Sex[/url] [url=]Bondage BDSM Torture Extreme Sex[/url] [url=]Extreme Asian Girl Teen Sex Movie[/url] [url=]PornStar Fucking Machines Video[/url] [url=]Hot Sex With Young Beautiful Teen Schoolgirls Porn Best Video[/url] [url=]Babysitter Movies Get Punished With The Cock [/url] [url=]Teen Lesbian Land Exclusive Lesbian Virgins[/url] [url=]Cheerleader Facials Cum Loads To The Face[/url] [url=]Teen Sleepover Lesbians Hot Sex Games[/url] [url=]Girls Left Alone Lonely Girls Playing With Themselves[/url] [url=]Little Russian Euro Teens Very Hot Sex With SchoolGirls[/url] [url=]3D Porn Hardcore HD Video 3D Porn Star 3D Teen Hot Porn[/url] [url=]Shemale Trance Gay Male Sex Best Porn Best Video[/url] [url=]Bukkake Sperm Hardcore Porn Best Video[/url] [url=][img][/img][/url][/CENTER] 18+xxxl

Posted By ArdmxurKexy 1 March 20, 2016 04:39:23 AM

GtczxvdgdfsdgbcdsHLBHFDasufksdfjln Ozxcjkl [url=]Maefegvtjy[/url] dfdfdfdsdgd FGxczDHXfgvdhjhjhjhsdadddfxgbnbm

Organization stingy generc tadlafil no prescription
Posted By ClaysonOr 1 April 22, 2016 04:09:27 AM

which is more efective viagra, cialis or levitra, [url=]cialis over the counter [/url] cialis 20mg review you cannot delete your posts in this forum cialis over the counter at walmart - cialis total posts opinion effects of cialis

Купить пурпурный чай чанг-шу
Posted By AndrewCag 1 June 11, 2016 06:58:06 PM

Revealed: scandal of Roma people forced to scavenge toxic e-waste - Investigations - The Ecologist [b]Пурпурный чай чанг-шу купить в красноярске [/b] ----------------------------------------- Здравствуйте пользователи Успей купить!Со скидкой 50% Всего за 1990 руб.! ========================================= [b]ЧТОБЫ КУПИТЬ НАЖМИТЕ НА ФОТО[/b] [url=][img][/img][/url] Здоровья Вам и только самого доброго! С уважением. ====================================== [b][url=]КУПИТЬ СЕЙЧАС[/url][/b] Хочу развеять массу слухов о моём похудении. В моём похудении нет никаких секретов. Своим методом я со всеми делюсь и советую! На тот момент, когда я решила заняться собой, у меня было уже лишних 28 КГ(. ) Решила подобрать какую-нибудь эффективную диету. В силу возраста больших физических нагрузок я позволить себе уже не могла. Тем более в молодости у меня была травма тазобедренного сустава, заставившая меня уйти из большого спорта. И это не весь перечень заболеваний, к которым приводит ожирение, а лишь его начало. Крое таких изменений в организме происходят неприятные перемены в жизни. Распадаются семьи, потому что полный супруг уже не так привлекательно выглядит и не может справляться как прежде с супружескими обязанностями по причине снижения либидо, появления импотенции. При абдоминальном ожирении человеку грозит бесплодие. Больному с лишним весом трудно ходить, он старает%

желудочный чай по монастырскому рецепту
Posted By AndrewCag 1 June 12, 2016 11:01:43 AM

ЛИПОКСИН - верный способ похудеть минимум на 5 кг за 2 недели с пользой для здоровья -> Cellufit – это эффективное средство от целлюлита, избыточных жировых отложений и отеков ->

монастырский чай состав инструкция
Posted By AndrewCag 1 June 13, 2016 10:03:25 AM

ЛИПОКСИН - верный способ похудеть минимум на 5 кг за 2 недели с пользой для здоровья -> Cellufit – это эффективное средство от целлюлита, избыточных жировых отложений и отеков ->

красота и здоровье огулов книги фото
Posted By AndrewCag 1 June 14, 2016 10:56:54 PM

ЛИПОКСИН - верный способ похудеть минимум на 5 кг за 2 недели с пользой для здоровья -> Cellufit – это эффективное средство от целлюлита, избыточных жировых отложений и отеков -> ЛИПОКСИН - верный способ похудеть минимум на 5 кг за 2 недели с пользой для здоровья

раскрутка сайтов в google
Posted By StakreyPres 1 September 20, 2016 10:09:00 AM

Работа над презентабельностью, юзабилити, содержательностью и вовлеченностью не только улучшает ПФ и способствует продвижению сайта, но и способно в разы увеличить конверсию, превращая больше посетителей в покупателей. [url=]раскрутка сайтов в яндекс[/url] Кейс «Мощное влияние правильных лендингов на ПФ и конверсию» «К нам в студию обратился клиент со стандартной проблемой множества интернет-магазинов автозапчастей Украины [url=]продвижение сайтов в яндекс[/url] На фоне обсуждения особо выделялся один комментарий сокращенно: «Правильное проектирование - ключ к высокой конверсии [url=]раскрутка сайта[/url] Позиции сайтов группы в топ- также увеличились с до продвигаемых запросов [url=]раскрутка сайта[/url] Такие ссылки открывают с большей охотой. [url=]продвижение сайта[/url] В некоторые дни прямой трафик превышал и показатели поискового трафика, и показатели переходов по сайтам, и другие каналы Гугл Она отображает типичное поведение пользователя из сервиса накрутки на моем сайте Важную информацию размещайте как можно выше

услуги продвижения сайтов
Posted By StakreyPres 1 September 20, 2016 12:43:34 PM

• Весь эксперимент с сайтом будет происходить через мой аккаунт в [сервисе] [url=]услуги продвижения сайтов[/url] Группа , сайты, которые продолжали работу, увеличили количество внешних ссылок, рост составил около [url=]раскрутка сайтов в яндекс[/url] [url=]услуги раскрутки сайтов[/url] Проанализируем положение сайтов в топ группы и в декабре и сегодня [url=]продвижение сайтов в яндекс[/url] Кстати, отзывы можно бесплатно брать по API из Яндекс.Маркета [url=]продвижение сайта[/url] Суть переубеждений заключалась в одном — "Мы твердо уверены, что ПС Яндекс не учитывает данные, о которых вы написали" Чаще показывайте дополнительный контент в модальных окнах, а не на новых страницах Когда просматриваешь один товар или новость, тебе предлагается несколько похожих вариантов • Достижение целевых SEO-показателей и привлечение большего целевого трафика

раскрутка сайтов в поисковых системах
Posted By StakreyPres 1 September 20, 2016 02:18:02 PM

• При установке нужного региона продвижения вы будете получать пользователей со всей России и СНГ [url=]раскрутка сайтов в яндекс[/url] Все выводы и гипотезы относительно работы ссылок делаются оптимизаторами на основе опыта, успешного или, наоборот, неудачного [url=]раскрутка сайтов в яндекс[/url] Причем каждый владелец сайта может установить изображение медали на своем сайте со ссылкой на страницу- подтверждения на сайте «ОСП-Мебель» [url=]продвижение сайтов в яндекс[/url] Гугл ни раз применял показательные санкции по отношению к большим компаниям, например мощному туристическому сайту Expedia, а также немецкому сайту автоконцерна БМВ правда, БМВ попал под санкции из-за внутренних дорвеев, а не внешних ссылок [url=]раскрутка сайта[/url] В итоге так и получилось [url=]услуги продвижения сайтов[/url] баллов за задумку, которая не только повышает презентабельность сайта, но и увеличивает ПФ • За месяцев количество внешних ссылок утроилось При грамотном подходе пользователь может просидеть на сайте очень долго Плохой некачественный дизайн.
Post a Comment
Security Code* Get another image


Using this website means you agree to us using simple cookies.

More information here...