2nd June, 2003
Bizarrely formed and practising one of nature’s most mysterious parenting methods, the seahorse is the victim of an international trade that kills 20 million of them every year. By Davina Langdale
Sheer weight of traffic
‘Getting up at 4.30am isn’t a whole lot of fun, and pulling on a wetsuit that’s still rather damp and smelly from the day before is even less fun.’ Oxford University research fellow Amanda Vincent has devoted over 10 years of research to the eccentrically beautiful seahorse. Her interest in the evolution of sex differences was piqued by the seahorse – the only species in the world in which the male becomes pregnant.
Seahorses have long been the stuff of myth and legend: a symbol of impudence to the Greek philosopher Plutarch; the miniature offspring of horse-sized parents that pulled Poseidon’s chariot, according to Greek fishermen. Sadly the animal’s unique physiology has also made it a popular feature in traditional Chinese medicine and a prize for aquarium collectors.
‘I began to get frightened about what I perceived to be a really big trade in these animals. I looked around and found there was no data at all, no formal trade records and nobody knew anything about the trade,’ says Vincent. That trade threatens the survival of all 35 of the world’s seahorse species.
• Traditional Chinese medicine
The number-one threat to seahorses. China imports 20 tonnes or 5-6 million of the animals annually. Seahorses are used to relieve a range of ailments and in virility treatment. The best quality seahorses sell for up to $550 per pound. China’s rapid economic growth has led to a 10-fold increase in the consumption of seahorses over the last 10 years.
• The aquarium trade
Seahorses fetch on average between $15 and $70. Hundreds of thousands of animals are captured for aquariums before they have had a chance to breed in the wild. Seahorses are notoriously difficult to keep as they require live brine shrimp for food and are prone to disease in contained environments. Even if they live long enough to breed the young rarely survive. Advertisements for ‘captive-bred’ seahorses usually signify that the pregnant male was caught in the wild and then gave birth in captivity.
• The souvenir trade
Each year, several hundred thousand seahorses are captured for souvenirs. Dried seahorses are popular curios in Asia and parts of Europe, and are fashioned into earrings, brooches and keychains.
• Infant mortality
Seahorses have a low reproduction rate due to their strict monogamy, and only two of the thousands of young that pairs typically produce ever reach maturity.
• Vulnerable home ranges
Seahorse home ranges measure 100 square metres for females and just one square metre for males, which sometimes cling to the same piece of seagrass for weeks. This makes them vulnerable to seine net fishing.
US$1,200 cost per kilo of large bleached seahorses in Hong Kong
US$2.80 cost per kilo of small seahorses in Taiwan
3,000 brine shrimp are consumed by a seahorse per day
250 seahorses to make up one kilo in the Philippines in 1993
300-450 seahorses to make up one kilo in the Philippines in 1995 US$60-70 price for colourful seahorses for aquariums in Germany
50 per cent decline in seahorse populations in the last decade
39 countries around the world trading in seahorses
35 species of seahorse exist around the world 1 foot length of Pacific seahorse species Hippocampus ingens
100 size in square metres of the home range of a female seahorse
1 size in square metres of the home range of a male seahorse
Current unsustainable methods of fishing for seahorses use hands, scoop nets or small seine nets that capture everything in their path. Seahorses are also a bycatch of trawl fishing; as many as 80 individuals can be caught in a single trawl.
Amanda Vincent and Project Seahorse have introduced new sustainable methods in the Philippines. Grow-out cages are built by fishermen out of confiscated nets. Caught seahorses are placed in the cages for five months, in which time they grow and reproduce. When the young are released by the male they escape through the nets and repopulate wild regions.
Teaching fishermen to spare the male seahorses, at least until they have given birth, ensures that future generations have a chance of survival. An incentive of two or three pence is paid to the fishermen for each animal deposited.
For more information, visit: www.seahorse.mcgill.ca
Seahorses have been around for 40 million years and yet little is known about them. Their lifespans are unknown, as are their predators and their function in marine ecology. A species that has been part of the marine environment for such a long time must be fulfilling some role in the ecosystem. If seahorses are lost through exploitation by man who is to say there may not be wider repercussions in the marine environment?
Seahorses range in size from a quarter of an inch to a foot or more.
The male becomes pregnant when the female deposits her eggs into a pouch in his tail.
The male protects and nourishes the eggs for a period ranging from 10 days to six weeks before releasing hundreds of miniature seahorses.
Seahorses have no teeth and swallow their food whole.
The coronet on each seahorse’s head is nearly as distinctive as a human thumbprint. Seahorses can change colour to match their background.
Seahorse mating dances can last for nine hours.
Seahorses can move their eyes independently of one another.
All 35 species of seahorse are listed as ‘vulnerable’ by the World Conservation Union. A species is listed as ‘vulnerable’ when there is a reduction in its population of 50 per cent over a 10-year period.
This article first appeared in the Ecologist June 2003
Mens Air Max
Nike Air Max 1 Sale
The guests above us had a shower and the noise was horrendous could even hear all of the water draining from the sink. We expected some noise but this was the noisiest hotel we have ever stayed in. Residence Inn, Courtyard and Fairfield Inn. DEMINT: Everyone needs to take the vote. That's important. Then we need to do everything we can to defund it.
A good professional program helps students gear up for their career ahead. It gives them an edge over their contemporaries and enables them to identify and explore potential opportunities. It helps them gain practical skills to use while working on a job.
Although Saussure recognized the necessity of putting the phonic substance between brackets ("What is essential in language, we shall see, is foreign to the phonic character of the linguistic sign" 21]. "In its essence it linguistic signifier] is not at all phonic"
But then something goes wrong whether it be a bit falling off something (a hotel tap, a cupboard door hinge), non existent noise proofing, miscommunications from staff, unsolicited wake up calls, hair in food, hotel cars not turning up etc. Arriving late at night to this very new hotel, the check in was friendly and efficient without being too attentive (I got to roll my own bag after just one 'no thank you'). The room was well designed and nothing fell off anything, although I'm not sure the automated curtains will stand the test of time.
Cheap Nike Air Max Shoes
The presentation of this additional information is not meant to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for measures of financial performance prepared in accordance with GAAP. A reconciliation of specific adjustments to GAAP results is provided in the tables titled Itemized Reconciliation Between Net Income Attributable to ViaSat Inc. On a GAAP Basis and Non GAAP Basis and Itemized Reconciliation Between Net Income Attributable to ViaSat Inc.
With all this, Thompson is signaling that he'll likely be worse. Already there are questions whether a convicted felon, former Brooklyn Democratic Party boss Clarence Norman, had a role in his campaign. And Thompson has said he'll go further than the City Council and Judge Shira Scheindlin by placing prosecutors in Brooklyn precincts to track stop and frisk..
Proceeding to follow the instructions given to him, the pilot slowly decreases their altitude, Rentaro consecutively utilizing a rope to jump off. Crashing with various branches of trees, Rentaro is forced to release the rope and land, slightly wounded, on the ground. He heads to the area where Enju is confronting the Gastrea, calling her name with noted parasite releases a web.
Cheap Air Max 90 Women
I work at Sigfox which is an IoT actor focusing on the connectivity part of the equation. At Sigfox we started with a blank piece of paper and designed what we believe to be the optimal network operator for IoT applications. The end result is a cellular network that supports billions of objects and provides unprecedented low pricing, low energy consumption and long range communication.
Top of pageAbstractToll like receptors (TLRs) are key components of the innate immune system that allow immune cells to specifically detect pathogens by recognizing their specific molecular patterns. Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF 1 is known to have a critical role in TLR downstream signalling by promoting energy metabolism, expression of proinflammatory cytokines and proangiogenic factors. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the accumulation of HIF 1 are not fully understood.
Founded in Chicago in 1950, the world's oldest and most coveted GOOD DESIGN(TM) award is conferred annually by The Chicago Athenaeum: Museum of Architecture and Design together with The European Centre for Architecture Art Design and Urban Studies. A record number of submissions from the world's leading FORTUNE 500 companies were reviewed in 2008, with the world's most visionary corporations being recognized for innovative design. Motorola's MC17 mobile computer was bestowed international recognition for advancing a new, visionary and innovative product concept, and for stretching the envelope beyond what is considered basic product and consumer design..
Post a Comment
Using this website means you agree to us using simple cookies.