US Marines in amphibious assault vehicles taking part in a US military exercise in Oura Bay, Okinawa, Japan, 2nd November 2014 Photo: Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Raul Moreno Jr. / US Navy via Flickr (CC BY-SA).
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70 years after Hiroshima, Okinawa's long resistance to US military occupation
Taisuke Komatsu & Semanur Karaman
6th August 2015
Japan is living under the shadow of US militarism, write Taisuke Komatsu & Semanur Karaman - and most of all in Okinawa, the nation's southernmost archipelago. Against overwhelming local opposition but backed by Japan's government, the US is building a new military base that is seizing land and threatens the unique ecology of Oura Bay with its seagrass beds, dugongs and coral reefs.
It is time activists across the globe extended solidarity to those protesting to prevent the construction of a new military base in Okinawa and struggling for full control over their land and livelihood.
The history of Okinawa, a group of small islands located in the East China Sea, is not known to many.
Before it was forcibly annexed by the Japanese government in 1879 through military force, the islands were independently governed under the Ryukyu Kingdom.
The archipelago housed diverse religions and languages, and enjoyed its strategic trading location between Japan, Taiwan, the Chinese mainland and the Philippines.
As the vastly unique culture and religions which had existed since 1429 was halted through Japanese colonization, assimilation policies were imposed on the people of Okinawa, including a ban on using indigenous languages and practicing religious and other forms of cultural tradition.
Okinawa was ordered to serve important strategic purposes for the Japanese government during the Pacific War. In addition to approximately 80,000 soldiers from outside Okinawa, 25,000 adults and teenagers including boys and girls under 18 years old were recruited locally to protect the interests and ensure the safety of mainland Japan.
The legacy of war: a strong desire for sustainable peace
Of the 1,888,136 people who were killed in the Battle of Okinawa, a quarter of the death toll was the local population. Inevitably, this left strong resentment among the locals and a strong desire for sustainable peace. The people of Okinawa no longer wanted to be sacrificed for Japanese or US military interests.
Currently, 74% of the entire US military presence is situated in Okinawa, even though Okinawa only comprises 0.6% of Japan's total land area.
During the period following the Pacific war, Okinawa, which came under US control for 20 years until 1972, witnessed an escalation of human rights abuses. The land of the locals was confiscated to build military bases and facilities. Women and children were reportedly raped, and a disturbing number of locals were killed by US soldiers or in US aircraft crashes.
The victims of grave human rights violations were hardly given any justice under the foreign administration, which escalated the locals' bitter feelings towards the US military bases.
Since 1972, despite demands from the local population for self-determination, Okinawa is by law Japanese territory, and the US continues to enjoy a strong military presence there through bilateral agreements with the central government. What is of grave concern is that, in order to protect US interests in East Asia, the Japanese government has agreed to extend this presence by establishing a new military base.
Fierce local resistance to further militarisation
The people of Okinawa are furious. They have not forgotten about the kidnapping, rape and murder of a 13 year old girl in 1995 by three US soldiers. This has also triggered a strong opposition campaign against the Futenma Air Station, "the most dangerous air station in the world", located in the middle of a populated residential area including a university campus.
Eventually, the Japanese and US governments agreed to relocate the Futenma Air Station. Yet their latest decision again outraged the people of Okinawa, since it plans to build a new military base in Okinawa, ignoring the people's will to decrease the heavy military presence.
Henoko, a suburb in northern Okinawa, was chosen to construct this highly controversial base. Its Oura Bay hosts a diverse ecological system of dugongs' sea grass beds and corals. The proposed military base will be the largest US military base in East Asia and will have an adverse impact on the ecological balance of the island, while taking more land away from the locals.
To stop the construction plan, environmental and peace activists and concerned citizens are staging protests on and off shore. The survey conducted by a local newspaper and TV corporation in May 2015 shows that 77.2% of respondents oppose the construction plan, while 83% demand relocation outside Okinawa.
In its annual international 2014 report, Amnesty International reports that "Japan continued to move away from international human rights standards." Coupled with the increasing US military presence, the right to freedom of expression and assembly in Okinawa is severely violated.
On 17th May 2015, thousands of protestors took to the streets carrying "Get out! Don't kill! Don't die", "Don't destroy nature" and "Get out Marines" posters while images of Japanese police dragging protestors exercising their most fundamental right to peaceful protest were circulated in the social media.
Railroading democratic freedoms
Freedom of expression is also constrained by the many slanderous statements of government officials addressing news outlets critical of the Japanese government's plan to build an additional military base.
The Okinawa Times and Ryukyu Shimpo, two daily newspapers in Okinawa highly critical of the plan to establish an additional military base were targeted by lawmakers of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). On 25th June, referring to the two newspapers, Naoki Hyakuta, a writer and former governor of NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation), said they "must be closed down by any available means" in a workshop of LDP lawmakers.
Although dominant capital is favouring the construction of the US military base, local politicians in Okinawa convey a different sentiment. In a speech delivered on June 23, the governor of Okinawa, Takeshi Onaga, said that he hoped that the Japanese government will cancel its plan to extend a US military presence in Okinawa because
"it is impossible to build a cornerstone of peace if freedom, equality, human rights and democracy are not guaranteed equally for all citizens."
Although the Japanese government holds the primary responsibility for ensuring an effective and democratic response to the legitimate demands of citizens of Okinawa, the international community bears responsibility too.
It is time international human rights mechanisms, including the UN, take concrete action to end the decades of suffering imposed through military ambitions on Okinawa.
And it is time activists across the globe extended solidarity to those protesting to prevent the construction of a new military base in Okinawa and struggling for full control over their land and livelihood despite the Japanese government's hostile attitude towards any form of dissent.
Taisuke Komatsu is a human rights advocate from Japan currently working as the UN Advocacy Coordinator of the International Movement Against All Forms of Discrimination and Racism (IMADR). Before joining IMADR, he worked at Good Neighbors Japan (Tokyo), René Cassin (London, UK), Minority Rights Group International (London, UK) and Amnesty International Japan (Tokyo). He holds a masters degree in Theory and Practice of Human Rights from the University of Essex in the UK.
Semanur Karaman is a feminist activist from Turkey. Prior to joining AWID she worked as a Policy and Advocacy Officer at the global civil society organization CIVICUS and a researcher for the local Turkish NGO Third Sector Foundation of Turkey. Sema also has experience in working as a Parliamentary Assistant at the UK Parliament. an MA in Human Rights and Cultural Diversity at the University of Essex and a fellowship on Public Policy and Democracy at the London School of Economics.
This article was originally published by openDemocracy under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International licence.
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